Pengaruh Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah terhadap NU

PERDEBATAN teologis di masa-masa awal Islam, terutama di zaman sahabat, tidaklah seramai ketika memasuki masa tabi’in, generasi kedua umat Muslim. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan semacam, apakah Allah Swt. memiliki sifat atau atribut-atribut seperti al-Samî’ (Maha Mendengar), al-Qadîr (Maha Kuasa), al-Bashîr (Maha Melihat), dll? Siapakah yang menciptakan perbuatan manusia: Tuhan atau manusia? Apakah dosa besar bisa menyebabkan orang keluar dari Islam? Juga, pertanyaan bersifat mendasar seperti, siapakah yang akan selamat di akhirat nanti? Mungkin, dalam konteks hari ini, pertanyaan-pertanyaan sisa Abad Pertengahan tersebut tidaklah menarik untuk didiskusikan dan diperdebatkan lagi.

Sejahrawan Ibn Khaldun menyebut bahwa timbulnya aliran-aliran dalam Ilmu Kalam (teologi) awalnya bermula dari perbedaan pemikiran dan penafsiran terhadap sifat-sifat Tuhan. Tokoh-tokoh Muktazilah seperti Ibrahim al-Nizham, al-Jahizh, al-Ka’bi, juga al-Juba’i mengembangkan ilmu kalam (teologi) bercorak rasional. Dan di sisi yang berlawanan muncul Asy’ariyah sebagai counter terhadap pendapat-pendapat Muktazilah yang dianggap sudah keluar dari Sunnah Nabi Saw.[1]

Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah

Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah (Aswaja)—biasa disebut Sunni—adalah salah satu sekte teologi dalam Islam yang dinisbatkan kepada al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi. Kedua tokoh ini dianggap sebagai peletak dasar dan mengembalikan “sunnah” Nabi Muhammad Saw. dan sahabat-sahabatnya. Karena itu, pengikutnya disebut Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah, yaitu orang-orang yang mengikuti Nabi Muhammad Saw. (Sunnah) dan sahabat-sahabatnya (Jama’ah).

Secara bahasa “ahl” berarti keluarga, golongan, atau pengikut. Sedangkan “al-sunnah” artinya jalan. Jalan apapun meski sesat. Yang dimaksud sunnah di sini adalah Jalan yang direstui Tuhan yang selama ini dilalui oleh Rasulullah Saw. dan sahabat-sahabatnya. Dan “al-jama’ah” diartikan sebagai golongan.[2] Jadi, berdasarkan makna kebahasaan, Aswaja merujuk pada sekelompok orang yang mengikuti mayoritas umat Muslim (al-sawâd al-a’zham). Yang dimaksud kelompok mayoritas di sini adalah Nabi Muhammad Saw. dan sahabat-sahabatnya.

Istilah Aswaja sendiri sebetulnya terinspirasi dari hadits Nabi Muhammad Saw. yang menyatakan, “Umat Yahudi terpecah menjadi 71 golongan. Umat Nasrani terpecah ke dalam 72 golongan. Umatku akan terpecah-pecah mejadi 73 golongan. Seluruhnya masuk surga kecuali satu. Para sahabat bertanya, siapakah itu? Rasul menjawab, “[Kelompok yang mengikuti] aku dan sahabat-sahabatku,” [HR. Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidzi, dan Ibn Majah].

Hadits di atas berisi ramalan Nabi Muhammad Saw., sebagaimana yang terjadi pada Yahudi dan Nasrani, umat Muslim akan terpecah-pecah menjadi 73 kelompok. Dari 73 kelompok itu hanya satu yang selamat. Nabi Saw. menyebutnya, “[Kelompok yang mengikuti]aku dan sahabat-sahabatku.” Kelompok Aswaja mengklaim merekalah yang dimaksud Nabi Saw. itu. Dari sinilah asal usul istilah ini muncul.

Al-Ramli dalam “Syarh al-Minhâj” menyebut bahwa Aswaja adalah sekelompok orang yang secara akidah mengikuti Nabi Muhammad Saw. beserta sahabat-sahabatnya (ortodok). Selain kelompok ini disebut ahl al-bid’ah (heterodok). Di zaman sekarang ini, kata al-Ramli, Aswaja diwakili oleh al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi. Hal senada dikatakan Murtadha al-Zabidi dalam “Syarh Qawâ`id al-‘Aqâ`id”, bahwa ketika disebut Aswaja, maka yang dimaksud adalah pengikut al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi. Pendapat ini diamini oleh al-Khayyali, al-Kustuli, juga al-Subuki. Para ulama sepakat bahwa Aswaja identik dengan al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi.[3]

Meskipun begitu, sebagaimana diklaim pengikut-pengikutnya, al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi sebetulnya tidak membuat sebuah sekte baru dalam teologi. Mereka hanya mengembalikan dan meluruskan kembali ajaran dan pemikiran teologi yang menurutnya sudah diselewaengkan oleh sekte lain, terutama Muktazilah. Selama 40 tahun Asyari menjadi pengikut Muktazilah, kemudian ia sadar bahwa sekte yang diikutinya telah menyimpang jauh dari ajaran “sunnah” Nabi Saw.[4]

Al-Asy’ari sendiri nama lengkapnya adalah Ali ibn Ismail ibn Ishaq ibn Salim ibn Ismail ibn Abdillah ibn Bilal ibn Abi Burdah ibn Abi Musa al-Asy’ari. Al-Asy’ari lahir tahun 260 H. dan meninggal 324 H. Ia mengambil hadits dari ulama-ulama Baghdad, salah satunya Abu Ishaq al-Maruzi. Al-Asy’ari belajar teologi pada Abu al-Jubai, pemuka Muktazilah. Setelah itu ia menyatakan diri keluar (al-i’tizâl) dari Muktazilah dan mendirikan sekte baru bernama Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah.[5]

Kelahiran Aswaja juga banyak dipengaruhi situasi sosial-politik waktu itu. Dalam sejarahnya sekte-sekte teologi lebih banyak muncul setelah fitnatul kubra: peristiwa paling kelam dalam sejarah umat Islam, yaitu pasca terbunuhnya Utsman dan perseteruan Ali dan Muawiyah. Pengikut Ali melahirkan Syiah, Muawiyah, Jabariyah, dan yang tak berpihak pada keduanya melahirkan Khawarij, juga sekte-sekte lainnya seperti Murjiah, Qadariyah, dll.

Dalam “al-Maqâlât al-Islâmîyyah” Asyari menceritkana bahwa perpecahan umat pertama kali terjadi akibat pertarungan politik. Yaitu setelah wafatnya Nabi Muhammad Saw. Dari perbedaan politik itu lahirlah aliran-aliran teologi yang jumlahnya banyak sekali.[6]

Dasar Ajaran Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah

Dalam “al-Ibânah ‘an Ushûl al-Diyânah” al-Asy’ari secara tegas mengatakan bahwa seluruh pendapatnya didasarkan pada al-Qur`an, hadits, dan pendapat para ulama:[7]

1) al-Qur`an

Al-Qur`an adalah sumber pertama dan sumber utama. Dalam pandangan Asy’ariyyah al-Qur`an bukanlah makhluk sebagaimana yang diyakini Muktazilah. Sebagai kalamullah [sabda Tuhan], al-Qur`an tetap qadîm [kekal/abadi] bukan hadîts [makhluk]. Al-Qur`an sebagai sebuah rangkaian simbol dan suara adalah makhluk [muhdas], tetapi ia mengandung unsur ketuhanan. Dalam arti lain, bungkusnya makhluk [kalâm lafzhîy], isinya (maknanya) ilahiyah [kalam nafsîy].

Ketika berhadapan dengan ayat-ayat ambigu [mutasyâbihât], al-Asy’ari mengambil Jalan ta’wil. Inilah yang membedakan dengan kelompok Zhahiri. Bukan “tangan” Allah Swt., melainkan “kekuasaan-Nya” [QS. al-Fath: 10]. Bukan “duduk di singgasana” melainkan meliputi singgasana-Nya. [QS Yunus: 02]., dll.

2) al-Hadits

Hadis adalah sumber kedua setelah al-Quran. Hadis yang bisa dijadikan sumber rujukan adalah hadits-hadits yang riwayatnya jelas [valid dan otentik] baik teks [dirayah] maupun perawinya [riwayah]. Yang membedakan dengan Syiah, tingkatan paling tinggi dalam priwayatan hadis menurut Ahlussunah wal Jamah adalah hadis yang disampaikan Bukhari dan Muslim. Rujukan dalam pengambilan hadis adalah riwayat kutub al-sittah: Shahîh al-Bukhârîy, Shahîh Muslim, Sunan Abîy Dâwûd, Sunan al-Tirmudzîy, Sunan Ibn Mâjah, Sunan al-Nasâ`îy. Sementara Syiah hanya mengakui: al-Kâfîy, al-Istibshâr, Man la Yahdhuru al-Faqîh, dan al-Tahdzîb.

3) Ijma’ Ulama

Selain al-Quran dan Hadis, Ahlusunnah wal Jamaah berpegang pada Ijma Ulama (konsensu ulama). Kesepakatan ulama dalam hukum tertentu bisa dijadikan sebagai rujukan hukum. “La tajtami’u ummati ‘alâ al-dhalâlah,” kata Nabi Muhammad Saw. (Umatku tak mungkin bersepakat pada kesesatan).

4) Akal

Apakah akal dapat mengetahui baik dan buruk? Apakah baik dan buruk ada dalam dirinya sendiri? Dapatkan akal menjadi sumber hukum? Dari ketiga pertanyaan ini, setidaknya muncul tiga Jawaban.[8]

Pertama, Menurut Muktazilah, akal memiliki kemampuan untuk mengetahui baik dan buruk. Bagi Muktazilah, akal bisa dijadikan sebagai sumber hukum. Segala sesuatu yang ada di dunia ini tak lepas dari tiga hal: (1). Dalam dirinya sendiri mengandung kebaikan. Maka Allah Swt. wajib melakukannya; (2). Dalam dirinya sendiri mengandung keburukan. Allah Swt. pasti melarangnya; (3). Dalam dirinya sendiri mengandung kebaikan dan keburukan. Dalam hal ini Allah Swt. bisa mewajibkan sekaligus bisa juga melarangnya.

Kedua, sebagaimana Muktazilah, al-Maturidi berpendapat bahwa baik dan buruk selalu menempel pada segala sesuatu dan bisa diketahui akal. Hanya, meskipun akal bisa mengetahui baik dan buruk, akal tetap tidak memiliki otoritas tunggal dalam menghukumi sesuatu. Teks dan akal bisa saling bersinergi dalam menentukan sebuah hukum.

Ketiga, pendapat Asy’ariyah. Menurut Asy’ariyah, baik dan buruk hanyalah atribut yang menempel pada sesuatu. Baik dan buruk tak ditentukan akal melainkan nash (teks). Bisa jadi menurut akal baik, tapi menurut nash malah sebaliknya. Sumber hukum hanyalah Tuhan [teks].

NU dan Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah

Secara sosial-keagamaan, menurut Kiyai Hasyim Asy’ari dalam “Risalah Ahlussunah wal Jamaah”, sudah sejak lama penduduk Jawa [Nusantara] dalam fikih menganut madzhab Syafii, secara teologi mengikuti Asyari, dan tasawuf berkiblat pada al-Ghazali dan Abi al-Hasan al-Syadzili.[9]

Memasuki tahun 1330-an H. muncul banyak aliran dan pemikiran keagamaan di Nusantara. Terutama pemikiran keagamaan baru yang dipengaruhi Muhammad Abduh, Rasyid Ridha, Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn al-Qayyim dan Abdul Hadi. Juga ajaran dan pemikiran Wahabi [Abdul Wahab al-Najd]. Kelompok baru ini banyak menyerang ajaran, pemikiran dan praktik-praktik keagamaan yang selama ini dianut dan dipeluk masyarakat Nusantara, seperti ziarah kubur, talqin, tawassul, tabarrukan (meminta berkah) terhadap ahlul bait, ulama, dan auliya. Juga keyakinan-keyakinan yang sudah mendarahdaging di masyarakat, seperti keyakinan terhadap syafaat dan doa.

Berdasarkan fakta sosial-keagamaan tersebut, Kiyai Hasyim Asy’ari merumuskan Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah sebagai: (1). Fikih mengikuti salah satu dari empat madzhab: Hanafi, Maliki, al-Syafi’i, dan Hanbali; (2). Teologi mengikuti al-Asy’ari atau al-Maturidi; (3). Tasawuf mengikuti al-Ghazali atau Junaidi. Rumusan ini kemudian dikukuhkan dalam AD/ART Jamiyyah Nahdlatul Ulama Bab III pasal 5: “Nadlatul Ulama beraqidah Islam menurut Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah dalam bidang aqidah mengikuti mazhab Imam Abu Hasan al-Asy’ari dan Imam Abu Mansur al-Maturidi; dalam bidang fikih mengikuti salah satu dari Madzhab Empat [Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi’i, dan Hanbali]; dan dalam bidang tasawuf mengikuti mazhab al-Junaidi al-Baghdadi dan Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.[10]

Meskipun, menurut Kiyai Said Aqil, sebagai sebuah definisi, rumusan tersebut kurang tepat [tidak jâmi’-mâni’]. Kiyai Said Aqil memilih Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah sebagai manhaj al-fikr (metode berpikir) ketimbang sebuah madzhab. Di sini Kiyai Said Aqil mencoba menggeser pengertian Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah dari qawlîy ke manhajîy. Sebagai sebuah manhaj al-fikr Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah menawarkan sebuah kerangka pikir yang mengedepankan tawassuth [moderat], tawazun [seimbang], tasâmuh [ toleran] dan i’tidâl [adil]. Inilah sebetulnya semangat yang dibawa al-Asy’ari dan al-Maturidi. Keduanya sengaja mengambil jalan tengah antara ekstrim kiri yang diusung Muktazilah dan ekstrim kanan yang diwakili Jabariyah [khasyawiyyah]. Ini adalah khashâ`ish (distingsi) Aswaja al-Nahdliyyah dengan model-model Aswaja lainnya, seperti yang dikukuhkan dalam Muktamar NU ke-33 di Makasar.[]

———–
[1]. Tim Aswaja NU Center PWNU Jawa Timur, Risalah Ahlussunah wal Jamaah: Dari Pembiasaan Menuju Pemahaman dan Pembelaan Akidah-Amaliah NU, Surabaya: Khalista, 2015, Cet. III, hal. 1

[2]. Abu al-Fadl bin al-Syaikh Abdu al-Syukur, Kawakib al-Lamma’ah fi Tahkik al-Musamma bi Ahlu al-Sunnah wal Jamaah, [Tuban, tt], hal-7-9

[3]. Muhib al-Aman bin Ali Bakir, al-Difa an Ahlussunah wal Jamaah, Pasuruan: Ma’had al-Islami Besuki, tt., hal. 4

[4]. Abdu al-Rafi Hamid al-Amin, al-Madzhab al-Asyari Bayna al-Salafiyyah wa al-Wasatiyyah, Afrika: Universitas Negeri Afrika, tt., hal. 11

[5]. Abi Hasan Ali bin Ismail al-Asyari, Maqalat al-Islamiyyah wa Ikhtilaf al-Musallin, Bairut: Maktabah al-Ashriyyah, tt., hal.39

[6]. Abi Hasan Ali bin Ismail al-Asyari, al-Ibanah an Ashl al-Diyanah, India: Majlis Dairah al-Maarif al-Nidzamiyyah, tt., hal.8

[7]. Abu Zahrah, Ushul al-Fiqh, Bairut: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, tt., hal. 70-73

[8]. Muhammad Hasyim Asyari, Risalah Ahlussunah wal Jamaah, Jombang: Maktabah al-Turats al-Islami, tt., hal. 9

[9]. Pengurus Besar Nahdlatul Ulama, Hasil-Hasil Muktamar ke-33 Nahdlatul Ulama, Jakarta: LTN PBNU, Cet. II, 2016,, hal. 25

[10]. Said Aqil Siraj, Tasawuf Sebagai Kritik Sosial: Mengedepankan Islam Sebagai Inspirasi, Bukan Aspirasi, Jakarta: LTN PBNU, 2012, Cet. IV, hal. 411

KUPI: Harapan Baru Perempuan Indonesia

Oleh: Fatimatuzzahro, S.Fil.I *)

HANYA satu kata untuk kegiatan KUPI (Kongres Ulama Perempuan Indonesia), KEREN! Meski cuma satu hari saya mengikuti, dari 3 hari rangkaian kegiatan dari Selasa-Rabu 25 s/d 27 April 2007 bertempat di PP. Kebon Jambu Babakan Ciwaringin Cirebon, namun saya bersyukur mendapatkan kesempatan menjadi pemantau (di name tag berubah menjadi peserta). Ibarat pepatah, seperti minum air laut yang semakin banyak justru semakin haus. Artinya semakin saya banyak tahu, justru aku semakin minder, bodoh dan tak tahu apa-apa. KUPI seumpama lautan ilmu pengetahuan yang tak habis dipelajari. Kegiatan pertama yang aku ikuti seminar nasional, yang mengupas tuntas sejarah ulama perempuan menangkal radikalisme atas nama agama. Catatan menarik yang disampaikan Ibu Nur Rofiah, Dosen PTIQ Jakarta, salah satu pemateri dalam seminar tersebut. “Menguatkan perempuan atas dasar ketaqwaan kepada Allah Swt. Perilaku memanusiakan perempuan bagian dari misi kenabian (amanah rasul)/profetik, sedangkan ulama adalah pewaris para Nabi”. Catatan lainnya “Semua menjadi mungkin bagi perempuan untuk memperjuangkan keadilan hakiki ketika Indonesia menjadi Negara Bangsa, karena jika beralih menjadi Negara Islam akan kembali sulit dilakukan. Maka dari itu NKRI Harga mati mutlak tak bisa di tawar lagi. Mengapa demikian, sebab tafsir yang dilakukan seringkali adalah antara (maksud dan artinya), bukan sasaran akhir apa yang diinginkan oleh dalil naqli, seperti pemahaman tentang ayat aurat, poligami, hukum waris dan sebagainya”.

Kegiatan kedua, diskusi paralel yang dibagi dalam 9 kelas diskusi kelompok. Awalnya bingung, karena semua tema menarik tetapi peserta dan pemantau hanya boleh memilih satu. Akhirnya saya memilih pernikahan anak dengan alasan dalam waktu dekat PC LKKNU Indramayu akan bersinergi dengan KPI mengawal program Tolak Pernikahan Anak. Dengan dipandu Ibu Lies Marcoes diskusi berjalan hangat dan menarik. Ternyata persoalan pernikahan anak begitu kompleks dan banyak variable penyebab serta akibatnya. Belum lagi berbicara metodologi penelitian teks keagamaan, analisa hukum dan ambiguitas hukum positif yang dianut masyarakat Indonesia, antara hukum negara serta hukum agama, kitab fikih bab pernikahan, pembahasan dalil al-Qur`an dan Hadits, asbab al-nuzul dan asbab al-wurud, keshahihan sebuah hadits hingga kualitas sanad/periwayatan hadits. Kami berbagi pengalaman dengan para peneliti dari Australia dan Malaysia, para Ibu-Ibu Hebat yang mengadvokasi pernikahan anak dari Aceh, Banjarmasin Kalimantan, Makasar Sulawesi, Lumajang Jawa Timur dan daerah lainnya di Indonesia. Berharap pada agenda KUPI selanjutya saya masih bisa ikut.

Sebagai orang awam yang baru mempelajari tentang tema pernikahan anak, ketika pertama kali masuk ruang diskusi dan mendengarkan pemaparan awal materi, agak terkejut juga wah berat ternyata memahami persoalan pernikahan anak, harus diawali dengan metodologi penelitian yang akurat, cara pandang/frame berpikir yang tepat bagaimana menyelesaikan permasalahan. Karena masih belajar, saya terus melihat dan mendengar tanya jawab antara pemateri, moderator dan audiens. Sesekali saya terlibat diskusi kecil dengan teman-teman di kanan kiri saya, dari Makasar dan Banjarmasin. Berkenalan, hingga menanggapi lontaran moderator dan penanya. Pantas saja sampai hari ini persoalan pernikahan anak seperti gunung es, hanya terlihat puncaknya saja tanpa tahu ada banyak masalah lain di bawahnya. Seperti kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, kurangnya lapangan pekerjaan, pornografi, pergaulan bebas, bahkan hingga ke masalah keterbatasan tanah.

Saya pun jadi teringat di daerah saya Indramayu, yang sampai hari ini terkenal dengan sebutan RCTI (Rangda Cilik Turunan Indramayu) atau “Janda Kecil Keturunan Indramayu”. Fakta ini bahkan terjadi di depan mata saya, ketika itu satu tahun silam terjadi peristiwa siswa kelas 2 SMP swasta di Indramayu, menikah karena kehamilan tidak diinginkan (KTD). Ironisnya si anak bahkan tinggal di pesantren. Sampai usia kandungan 4 bulan tidak ada yang mengetahui jika ia hamil. Karena kepolosan dan ketidaktahuan sang anak, ia tidak tahu bahwa dirinya telah berbadan dua. Orangtuanya bercerai, ibunya berangkat ke luar negeri menjadi buruh migran. Versi lain, menurut kabar yang beredar Ibunya sudah menikah lagi di negeri jiran. Dan ayahnya pun sama menikah lagi, ia bekerja serabutan, dengan sikap ayah yang temperamental seringkali berbuat kasar terhadap sang anak. Maka untuk keamanan sang anak, si Ayah menitipkan anak ke pesantren. Tidak tahu ternyata ketika di pesantren sering keluar tanpa izin, sering tidak masuk sekolah tanpa izin. Diam-diam menemui lelaki di luar sana yang sudah bekerja, mau berhubungan seksual dengan imbalan hanya Rp. 20.000. Ketika di tanya uangnya untuk apa? Dengan polos si anak menjawab untuk membeli pulsa.

Yang lebih dramatis ketika si anak diketahui telah hamil. Bapaknya marah dan menyiksa si anak dengan kekerasan fisik. Memaksanya menikah dan keluar dari sekolah serta pesantren. Pernikahan pun dilangsungkan untuk menutupi aib keluarga. Setelah itu, si anak kembali melanjutkan hidupnya tapi tak bisa meneruskan pendidikan. Ada yang mengatakan ia telah bercerai, dan bayi yang dilahirkan diasuh oleh korban sendiri. Kasus ini menambah daftar panjang sebutan RCTI, meski peristiwa ini terjadi tanpa ekspose media karena pertama, menjaga nama lembaga pendidikan dan pesantren. Kedua, yang aku lihat tidak ada yang mau turun menyelesaikan, apa yang terbaik bagi si anak. Semua di lihat dari sudut pandang orang dewasa dan lelaki, tanpa mendengarkan suara hati si anak.

Menurut saya kasus pernikahan anak menjadi fenomena gunung es lainnya, karena hanya satu atau dua kasus yang muncul di permukaan atau diberitakan media. Selebihnya, lebih banyak yang tersembunyi, samar dan sengaja dihilangkan atau dilupakan (diusir atau dikucilkan). PR lagi, bagaimana mengangkat sebuah kasus pernikahan anak tanpa membuat nama baik keluarga tercemar, atau tanpa si korban menghadapi tekanan mental. Karena kemampuan saya masih terbatas saat itu, sehingga tidak banyak yang bisa dilakukan. Sehingga berharap dengan keikutsertaan di KUPI menambah pengalaman, pengetahuan serta wawasan apa dan bagaimana yang harus dilakukan, serta jejaring siapa yang harus kita temui.

Mungkin kasus yang pernah saya temui, tidak ada apa-apanya dibandingkan dengan pengalaman Ibu-Ibu Hebat lainnya, yang bahkan sampai rela diusir dari tempat dimana dia tinggal. Tetapi dengan kepingan cerita, dan ragam kasus pernikahan anak di seluruh Indonesia menjadi PR KUPI agar ke depan ada draft legal atau fatwa yang bisa menjadi pegangan. Kemudian ada monitoring dan evaluasi berkala sejauh mana pendampingan kasus ini, karena seringkali menguap begitu saja tanpa tindak lanjut berarti bagi si korban, bagaimana ia bisa diberdayakan lagi secara ekonomi, sosial dan politik.

Terimakasih Ibu Lies Marcoes sudah membuat diskusi pernikahan anak menjadi menarik, dan memancing keingintahuan kami, namun tetap bersikap kritis terhadap materi yang disampaikan. Terimakasih kepada peneliti isu-isu perempuan di Indonesia dari Australia Prof Kathryn Robinson, selalu ada harapan dan tantangan bagi para pengkaji isu perempuan, karena beliau saja jauh-jauh dari Australia berkenan hadir dan memberikan motivasi, berbagi pengalamannya saat melakukan penelitian pernikahan anak di Indonesia. Terimakasih juga kepada para ulama pesantren pengkaji isu pernikahan anak, Kiyai Mukti Ali, Gus Jamaludin Muhammad, Roland Gunawan dan Ahmad Hilmi, sudah menjelaskan konsep pernikahan anak menurut fikih yang berat jadi mudah dipahami. Tidak ketinggalan Peneliti Insist dan Rumah KitaB Nurhady Sirimorok yang sudah menerangkan metodologi penelitian yang rumit dan njlimet menjadi mudah dimengerti. Bonus luar biasa dari KUPI, saya bertemu para senior, ulama dan kiyai yang concern terhadap isu perempuan, dan perempuan-perempuan hebat di bidangnya masing-masing.

Terimakasih KUPI sudah mempertemukan kami semua, memberi pengetahuan, pencerahan dan menjalin silaturahim dengan para penggerak perempuan lainnya. Bagi saya, KUPI adalah harapan baru perempuan Indonesia. Membahas isu perempuan yang kontekstual, merumuskan fatwa yang berpihak pada perempuan, serta mendorong kebijakan publik tentang hak perempuan yang berkeadilan. Ia yang terpinggirkan dan termarginalkan haknya, ia yang diperlakukan diskriminatif, kelak akan menemukan ruangnya kembali bersama KUPI.[]

*) Ketua PC. LKKNU Indramayu dan Pemantau KUPI

best anti spy apps detector for android

Hi, thank you for visiting Greatest Cell phone Spying Testimonials. I am Jack Gillman, Image with the spy applications promote for pretty much 6 decades, and so I�ve well known countless several cell phone surveillance courses year after year.
To assist you in choosing the ideal smartphone secret agent software for you, We’ve build a summary of the best phone spy equipment available online. Evaluate every one plan underneath and select what sort meets your requirements.
There is a lot of unhealthy around, also to allow you to cure it, I�m gonna review just what exactly I�ve found to be the most beneficial smartphone secret agent application available right now. I�ve factored in such thinggs as options, usefulness, dependability, and feedback from customers to help you help make the judgement.
Important. Each individual telephone surveillance system further down is without a doubt 100 undetected � the necessary paperwork works in private without worrying about consumer knowing.
mSpy is known as a powerful watching tool with a bit of wonderful options. It�s extremely simple to employ, almost certainly among the list of easiest spying software I have got used. Likewise, its support service is usually agreeable plus practical. What I enjoy concerning mSpy is it means that you can monitor an iPhone or maybe iPad and not having to jailbreak the product.
Like other hidden cellular phone wordpress right here, it offers all of the common functions, including the ability to spy on text messages, course Gps unit locale, and also observe instant messages. It provides many unique features which makes it stand above the audience. Why don’t we have a look at these characteristics.
1) mSpy With out Jailbreak. mSpy iphone 3gs spy computer software devoid of jailbreak may be revealed! Anyone can monitor an apple iphone not having Jailbreaking in just a few a few minutes. A person don�t also have to fit an app towards equipment alone. As a substitute, actions is definitely taken from a person’s iCloud consideration and deemed using a web-based cp.
2) Keylogging function. On this offer, you will see virtually all keystrokes inked a checked smartphone, so you find out what they’re entering towards im iphone enjoy Skype along with WhatsApp. This selection is only situated on Google android instruments.
3) Stopping websites and also software. mSpy can be used the parent regulate application for cellular phone. It helps dad and mom to stop unfavorable websites which includes intimate as well as pornographic, wagering together with social networking sites. On top of that, you are able to deal with exactly what apps/games could be perform together with competed.
4) Geo-Fencing. With a chart with the mSpy cp, you possibly can tag as numerous �Allowed” as well as �Forbidden” zones as you would like and acquire prompt informs on every occasion your kids get into or even go away those locations.
5) Unrestricted machine adjust. Your current mSpy permit is only able to often be active on a particular gadget at one time, but you might deactivate the driver’s license within the genuine oral appliance after that busy this certificate around the brand-new device. This is valuable, for example, if you need to test the software package against your cellphone just before installation for your child�s cell phone.
6) 24/7 Customer service. I am aware, other companies deliver the following in addition, and not towards the magnitude which will mSpy does. Many organizations provide you with several avenues for phone � commonly cellular phone in addition to email address. mSpy offers you a number of methods to call them: cell phone, email address, stay discussion, or perhaps a support ticket.
mSpy it not just best with android and ios mobile devices, it also works with each Windows 7 as well as Mac pcs. You can monitor several devices with a solitary profile.
mSpy makes it easy for someone to check out what they can control section before buying a regular membership. You have access to a good simulation web site by just merely the hyperlinks. You are likely to like the cp that it mobile phone monitoring system offers. Go to their website and see for your self.
Cost: mSpy enters in three packages (Elementary, Superior, and Offer guide) valued by $30 that will $230
Developer: Bitex Party LTD, your UK-based small business established in 2011.
Visit their website: http://www.mspy.world-wide-web
Highster Cellular Guru Version is one of the cheapest portable monitoring purposes on the market. Its brimming with options that will help monitor every aspect of a cell phone, nevertheless it doesn’t have numerous innovative characteristics when mSpy. Even now, it comes with a bunch of capabilities that most individuals may find useful have the right after:
Social Media Checking. Keep track of WhatsApp, Twitter, Youtube, iMessage, Blackberry messenger, Skype, Viber, Instagram, plus Email.
Real-time Gps device Following. Learn where the device is at all times using GPS-tracking engineering. Area is displayed on a map from the cp.
Stealth Digicam. Set off a mobile handsets digital camera to look at a mystery photo which is shipped to your money.
Call Watching. Keep track of incoming along with outgoing enquiries, time and date from enquiries, cellular phone number of person contacting or being termed, and also have a jogging journal coming from all phone calls crafted.
Photos & Video recording Sign. See pictures & films taken on the actual observed phone.
Browser Heritage. Check out all of the website pages people check out on phone.
Contacts and also Work. Look at innovative associates in addition to date articles.
Text Personal message Monitoring. Keep an eye on in addition to file all of Texts texts. Keeps a jogging file of all the scrolls directed along with got, and its viewable from the inside of the cp.
From what I can observe, Highster Mobile or portable introduced terrific endeavours to be sure their own applications works well with almost all Mobile gadgets, is quite easy to install, which is glitch-free. Additionally, that they have achieved it his or her private search to help to make the software programs affordable for just anyone. Though We’d own loved to discover a number of the more professional options such as Telephone Intercept as well as Record Area, Highster Mobile phone is equipped with almost any characteristic youre looking meant for inside a cellular phone spyware.
For any one in the market for an affordable cost secret agent application with regard to Operating system, Highster Phone must be at the top of your collection. Its own surprisingly easy to make use of and doesn’t call for every specific adjustments. Furthermore, once you find the application, you obtain free posts for all times.
Highster Mobile can handle a pair of portable operating systems: os (apple company iphone, apple ipad tablet) together with Operating system (phone and tablet). I just tried the application in my Check out the Globe S5 going Android os Five.3, and delay pills work fantastic.
Cost: Obtain life long certificate for just a one-time expense regarding $69 (Virtually no monthly fees!)
Developer: ILF Mobile phone applications Corp, your US-based organization founded in fact.
Visit their website: http://www.highstermobi.web
FlexiSPY is probably the a lot of feature-rich criminal software package You will find tested. FlexiSPY has developed in the enterprise for providing cellular telephone surveillance computer software considering 2004. The nation’s sophisticated functions designed for allow you to monitor phone cellular use, as well as being offered on lots of mobile or portable networks, including iphone 3gs, iPad, Google android, Phones, and even Nokia Symbian.
In to add FlexiSPY, you have got to first actual and also jailbreak whatever target product. Once you have rooted as well as jailbroken the extender, you could download and install typically the FlexiSPY spy request to start out logging fun-based activities which include: scrolls, phone calls, Gps unit spots, Facebook, Viber, Blackberry messenger, iMessages, WhatsApp talks, Skype mail messages, photos and videos, e-mail, internet websites went to, and much more.
FlexiSPY is supplied in a pair of designs, Top quality plus Extraordinary. The intense model offers more advanced includes versus Superior type and offer you will extra chance to monitor a phone. Strikes underneath are exactly what established FlexiSPY Excessive besides the competitiveness, along with screen just how powerful certain may be.
Call Intercept. This selection enables you to listen in to some stay text message sub-standard.
Record Telephone calls. Remotely track record almost all cell phone calls made to or with the specific telephone. Most simply call mp3s happen to be downloaded on your FlexiSPY control panel.
Record Area. Typically the cell phones area are usually reported along with uploaded with your control panel since mp3s. You can also act dwell while it’s developing.
Spy regarding Bookmarks (Pass word Christmas cracker): A place to start with. This original function helps you notice virtually all security passwords came into on the mobile phone. You can certainly view the exact bookmarks they will use designed for sociable texting, e-mail in addition to purposes.
RemCam. This feature allows you to improve his or her cellular phone digital camera far from others to look at photographs which often happen to be uploaded for your requirements.
Instant Gps device Sites. Buying the current GPS site, observe the most up-to-date finds on the place.
Remotely control the device. FlexiSPY will let you help make every variations mouse click the following post a little bit through the on line website cell. It is one thing I just have not seen in many other watching uses.
With FlexiSPY Serious it is possible to fundamentally track every last process on track mobile and also learn a location, social network accounts, along with around ecosystem and underneath your influence. Right after setting up the actual flexispy mobile app and even configuring this options, their smartphone actions can be obtained along with placed to the flexispy computers, so that you can see him or her by just recording within your user interface in your home pc and also phone.
So should you use flexispy? I would personally exclusively suggest applying flexispy at a jailbroken new iphone4 or perhaps ipad device. I have tried using the idea about Android operating system tool and it really works, nonetheless it necessitates the machine to be grounded. It program is the platform for leading-edge people. Having to pay a complicated person, or you are not sure of cheering, I recommend highly discount codes and vouchers Highster Cell. Also in our, flexispy is amongst the a good number of offer unique criminal applications on the market, however and also priciest. Make sure you Want full functionalities before you dedicate the amount of money.
Cost: FlexiSPY High grade version � $149, FlexiSPY Serious model � $349 (1-Year License)
Developer: Flexispy, Limited, a business based in Thailand
Visit their web site: http://www.flexispy.internet
iKeyMonitor is a simple though powerful surveillance software that firelogs Text message, WhatsApp texts, key strokes, accounts, websites, screenshots along with will send expose report back to your e-mail. We’ve tested the idea on my iPhone 5 with os Seven.3.Four and delay rather well. The particular vent is see-through and straightforward to make use of, also it may exactly what it�s meant to conduct.
Free 3-day test. iKeyMonitor will provide you with an entire free trial offer for several days or weeks 100 % risk-free, which is best for you to see how the software package does work prior to you buying.
View each individual key stroke tapped out. Simply because it has the essential use is an important keylogger, most forms of text messaging will probably be logged, regardless of the software package is commonly employed. You will get all content that is sold back overall texts programs.
Capture account details typed in. Each individual key stroke wrote on the keypad belonging to the checked set up is loggedeven security passwords which can be otherwise covered within the user as soon as searched. You could seize a username and password by using iKeyMonitor.
Capture screenshots routinely. Immediately needs a screenshot as being the mobile tv screen alters, and can be registered as much as you want. This gives the particular capacity to observe precisely what web-sites are actually went to, or exactly what software are already implemented.
Multi-language aid. iKeyMonitor was made to guidance multi-languages, just like Speech, How to speak spanish, Dutch, German, Ruskies, Colonial, German, and more. It setting up can be bought in a supervisor software. Various other controls is usually establish through this unique graphical user interface, such as storing variables, password with regard to iKeyMonitor, File transfer protocol, secureness choices, plus much more.
If you are interested in a program to process taking put on an iPhone, you will want iKeyMonitor. This is the greatest keylogging software available for iphone 3gs. iKeyMonitor provides a a number of attributes in order to reach your following needs. That isn’t only a key logger app, it’s also an innovative cell phone overseeing software package.
Installation is not hard and the application is compatible with pretty much all jailbroken tools running os Six.3 or perhaps later on. Unless people usually are said to that there’s a keylogger in place, they can never know, due to the solutions turn invisible function that may be untraceable. Be aware that Jailbreaking is required pertaining to os systems, this unique application could be set up just at a jailbroken iPhone/iPad through Cydia.
Cost: Able to strive; $39.Ninety nine (A month permit); $179.99 (1-year permit)
Developer: Awosoft Technological know-how CO, Limited, some sort of UK-based company founded with ’08
Visit their web page: http://ikeymonitorapp.internet
PhoneSheriff is a good phone overseeing along with administering program that enables you to keep an eye on Every one of the actions from any iphone 4, Phones, Google android telephone and even tablets as well as apple ipad tablet in addition to ipad tablet micro. The required forms is usually super easy place in about the machine you wish to watch. It offers many of the usual benefits located in this software program which include phone recording, Gps navigation position pursuing, looking at of Text message and e-mail messages, seeing technique historical past, plus working of photos/videos obtained.
Social network checking. Watch inward bound and amazing chat communications from the inside of social media iphone, enjoy Zynga, WhatsApp, Viber, Blackberry messenger, and even iMessage.
Create occasion polices. For the duration of times through the day (according to ones own specifications) you can actually block maximum accessibility product, or perhaps obstruct all of messages or calls.
Geo-Fencing Aware. Possibly be alerted anytime whatever target device journeys away from a certain space precisely what selected into the spotlight by your control panel.
Profanity Alarm. Put together search phrase filtration system of which warn you every time a vulgar concept (that you explain) can be feedback in to the machine.
Block expertise. Inhibit admission to exact wordpress, internet sites, connections and more. Restrict/Block text messaging in addition to labelling expert services for specific acquaintances. Incorporate quantities to help you whitelist and even blacklist to allow for together with prevent these people correspondingly.
There are a variety of far more options provided PhoneSheriff. It truly is really worth the subscription charge. Installment on the specific system is basic and cleanse, and there’s solid number of setting available choices for the PhoneSheriff key pad.
If you’re searching for the experienced cellular phone supervising computer software that will assist you preserve your household or possibly online business, I think PhoneSheriff could be the solution you have looking on with regard to.
Update. This disguised. kind of PhoneSheriff is not really you can purchase or even acquire. Typically the iphone app updates consumers gadget they are remaining observed.
Cost: PhoneSheriff supplies overseeing designs starting as low as $49/six weeks pertaining to households and even $299/year designed for corporations. This business selection comes along with 5 the necessary licenses, which lets you track 6 split instruments.
Developer: Retina-X Schools, LLC, an important US-based enterprise launched in 03
Visit their webpage: http://www.phonesheriff.net
1. You need accessibility aim for cellular phone (the unit you should keep track of). You have to be qualified to download the particular mobile or portable traveler applications on top of the instrument you intend to course, so you don�t should download and read anything with your cellphone or possibly laptop.
2. The actual criminal software programs are works with a person’s computer. This specific cant afford to be considered a problem for most tools. Virtually all software suppliers these days provide software package best with the serious platforms � os, Mobile, Cell phone, and Symbian. Understand that a good iOS device have to be jailbroken before the software package can be established.
3. The objective telephone needs to have family members using (Third generation, 4G, or perhaps Wireless network). The actual monitored files are transferred online and even placed to the spying computer software firm’s servers, which you could access on the net using your cp. It’s not possible to path the particular systems actions in case the concentrate on cell phone don’t even have family members using.
4. Guarantee the corporation possesses a guidance centre. Software program problems will possibly appear at the moment maybe you are while using surveillance software programs. The reason is, the actual systems adding to their own computer system, along with the criminal program the need to always be updated to adapt. Whenever a specialized dilemma develops, you may want to call assistance. Make sure the business you acquire the software program as a result of possesses a reputed support target � ultimately 24/7 assist by live converse or even telephone.
5. Avoid promises which will sound also best for possibly be correct. Absolutely yes, any scammers usually can be found from the cellular hidden software program current market, along with they are ready to have highly vibrant (along with Fake) states to assist shop for. My favorite suggestion is really it all as well appears to be also fantastic be true, or perhaps is a characteristic everyone have not at all viewed advertise earlier than, end up being quite careful of dealing with that particular firm. Stick with my very own prime cellular phone surveillance application suggestions previously mentioned, based upon my working experience, these lenders are the product from the crop, and so they pretty much all serve as assured.
You will initially find the software programs by a respected company. When paid for, you will receive information through the supplier which will include your site facts, unit installation directions, get a hold of weblink plus arousal code.
Next, you will put up software program in the device you would like to record. Nearly all mobile or portable hidden computer software nowadays is compatible with all of phone forms: os (iPhone/iPad), Android mobile phone, Phones, and even Symbian. If the applications are established, then you can get started following any pursuit on the phone by a key pad you can access from any machine. It truly is that easy.
Special take note of. If you’d like to take advantage of the software package for an new iphone4, you are likely to to start with want to jailbreak the particular apple company iphone in order to set it up. However if you simply can�t jailbreak (or possibly don�t want to), you could strive the mSpy devoid of jailbreak remedy which allows you to keep an eye on iOS exercises with out using jailbreak.
So if you’re hunting for a excellent phone malware which can supply the outcomes you’d like to have and has now any 24/7 tech support company that can be arrived at by means of survive talk, next look into mSpy. However if you prefer the top of the range, most powerful cellphone keeping track of software package on the market, go with FlexiSPY (though you�ll should pay far more as it). Highster Cell is certainly one of the best Value, it all doesn�t have got all this innovative features seeing that FlexiSPY, however it does have each of the features that you will will need about this cellular surveillance program.
These 6 bags are created to provde the advice that you might want whenever you imagine the child, member of staff, or perhaps partner is up to around no good in addition to hidden some thing on your side. Study more about each to make the purchase final decision.
Thank a person pertaining to traveling to this site we do hope you learn what you are looking at. When you’ve got inquiries or have all aid please make sure to contact me.